Pine Splitting

The Splitting Dilemma: Understanding the Weaknesses of Pine Table Legs

Pine, a longstanding favorite in the furniture world, is often chosen for crafting table legs, beloved for its cost-effectiveness and rustic appeal. However, pine table legs frequently encounter the issue of splitting. This article delves into the causes of this problem and proposes hardwood as a reliable and sustainable alternative.

Understanding Pine Wood

The Appeal of Pine

Pine is admired for its natural beauty, affordability, and versatility. Its light color and straight grain patterns make it an excellent choice for various cheap furniture pieces, including table legs. Pine furniture can effortlessly complement a wide range of interior designs, from farmhouse chic to modern minimalist.

The Downside: Splitting

While pine offers numerous advantages, one notable drawback is its propensity to split over time due to moisture content, knots and softwood pore structure. Here are some expanded reasons why this occurs:

Moisture Content

Pine's status as a softwood significantly influences how it interacts with moisture. Softwoods, including eastern pine (Pinus strobus), are more porous compared to hardwoods, making them particularly adept at absorbing and releasing moisture. This characteristic stems from pine’s cellular structure, which contains larger cell cavities and a less dense composition. As a result, when exposed to variations in humidity, pine wood undergoes noticeable expansion and contraction. These dimensional changes are not uniform across the wood, leading to internal stresses. During periods of high humidity, pine absorbs moisture, causing it to swell.

Conversely, in dry conditions, it releases moisture, leading to shrinkage. This cycle of expansion and contraction can create stress points within the wood, particularly along its natural grain. Over time, these stresses can manifest as cracks and splits, especially if the wood hasn't been properly seasoned or if it's exposed to rapid changes in environmental conditions. This behavior underscores the need for careful control of moisture levels in pine, both during processing and in its final application.


Knots are a distinctive feature of pine wood, often visible as darker, circular areas within the grain. They are essentially the remnants of branches that were engulfed by the growing trunk of the tree. While knots can add visual interest and character to wood, they also represent points of weakness.

Structurally, the wood grain around a knot is disrupted and not as uniform as in other areas, which compromises the overall strength and integrity of the wood at these points. As pine dries and ages, the difference in density and grain direction between the knots and the surrounding wood becomes more pronounced. This disparity can lead to increased stress around these areas, making them prone to splitting along the grain. The risk is particularly high if the wood undergoes rapid drying or is subjected to mechanical stress. In applications where structural integrity is paramount, the placement and size of knots in pine need careful consideration to minimize the risk of splitting.

Lack of Durability

Compared to many hardwoods, pine is generally less durable. This reduced durability is partly due to its softer and more porous nature. Pine's lower density makes it more susceptible to dents, scratches, and wear over time. In addition, its relatively high sap content can lead to issues like resin bleed, especially when exposed to heat or sunlight, These characteristics make pine more vulnerable to physical damage, including splits and cracks. Additionally, this characteristic renders pine less ideal for use in painted furniture.

While pine can be treated with preservatives, stains, or sealants to enhance its durability and resistance to environmental factors, it still typically falls short of the longevity and resilience offered by harder woods. Although pine can be used for outdoor applications, it tends to be outperformed by more durable hardwoods like acacia and ipe. This inherent vulnerability to damage needs to be considered when choosing pine for applications where it will be subjected to heavy use or harsh conditions. Despite these limitations, pine remains a popular choice due to its affordability, availability, and ease of workability, especially for projects where high durability is not the primary concern.


Despite its benefits like affordability and some visual appeal, Eastern White Pine faces challenges. Its moisture absorption and release can lead to expansion, contraction, and eventual splitting. Inherent knots contribute to this problem, and pine's lower density compared to hardwoods reduces its durability and suitability for painted furniture. However, pine maintains its popularity in various uses, from building to crafting. Understanding and managing its unique properties is essential to make the most of its strengths and extend its lifespan in any project.

Back to blog

Leave a comment